Our Extinction

The sixth extinction

Somewhere on Earth, every 20 minutes, one animal species dies out. At this rate, we will lose 50% of all species by the end of the century. Time is running out to turn the tide.

November 30, 2009|By Jeff Corwin

There is a holocaust happening. Right now. And it’s not confined to one nation or even one region. It is a global crisis.

Species are going extinct en masse.

Every 20 minutes we lose an animal species. If this rate continues, by century’s end, 50% of all living species will be gone. It is a phenomenon known as the sixth extinction. The fifth extinction took place 65 million years ago when a meteor smashed into the Earth, killing off the dinosaurs and many other species and opening the door for the rise of mammals. Currently, the sixth extinction is on track to dwarf the fifth.

What — or more correctly — who is to blame this time? As Pogo said, “We have met the enemy, and he is us.”

The causes of this mass die-off are many: overpopulation, loss of habitat, global warming, species exploitation (the black market for rare animal parts is the third-largest illegal trade in the world, outranked only by weapons and drugs). The list goes on, but it all points to us.

Over the last 15 years, in the course of producing television documentaries and writing about wildlife, I have traveled the globe, and I have witnessed the grim carnage firsthand. I’ve observed the same story playing out in different locales.

In South Africa, off the coast of Cape Horn, lives one of the most feared predators of all — the great white shark. Yet this awesome creature is powerless before the mindless killing spree that is decimating its species at the jaw-dropping rate of 100 million sharks a year. Many are captured so that their dorsal fins can be chopped off (for shark fin soup). Then, still alive, they are dropped back into the sea, where they die a slow and painful death.

Further east, in Indonesia, I witnessed the mass destruction of rain forests to make way for palm oil plantations. Indonesia is now the world’s leading producer of palm oil — a product used in many packaged foods and cosmetic goods — and the victims are the Sumatran elephant and orangutan. These beautiful creatures are on the brink of extinction as their habitats go up in smoke, further warming our planet in the process.

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Competition To Create Wildlife Highway Overpasses

Landscape Architects Compete to Create Highway Overpasses for Wildlife That Allow for Safer, Free Roaming Across Habitats.


Landscape architect Robert Rock takes pride in talking to his clients to understand just how they’ll be using the green spaces he designs. In his most recent assignment, however, he hit a roadblock.

“You can’t ask elk what they’d like for dinner,” Mr. Rock said ruefully.

The Olin StudioA design from the Olin Studio in Philadelphia would cost about $12 million and span a six-lane highway.



Nor can you ask them what would induce them to nibble that dinner while strolling across a lushly planted footbridge spanning a six-lane highway.

Getting elk to cross highways safely—and encouraging lynx, bear, deer and bighorn sheep to follow suit—was the key challenge in an unusual global contest that concluded this month.

The ARC International Wildlife Crossing Infrastructure Design Competition asked engineers, ecologists and landscape architects to come up with an overpass bridge for pedestrians of the furry sort. The goal: to encourage wildlife to roam freely across their habitat—even when that habitat is bisected by a highway.

The five finalists, unveiled last week in Denver, designed multimillion-dollar bridges that aimed to tempt animals across with tasty foliage, green valleys, gentle streams and curved walls to block out noise and vibrations from the traffic below.

Critter Crossings

The Olin Studios

Mr. Rock, who is with Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates in New York, came up with a very wide bridge planted with strips of differing vegetation giving each species its own lane to cross in: pine-tree forest for wildlife that like privacy, such as deer; a section of meadow for animals that prefer more wide-open views.

For his part, David Rubin, a partner at the Olin Studio in Philadelphia, even included a wildlife playground of sorts, made up of toppled tree trunks, to attract the American marten, a beady-eyed weasel with a penchant for scampering among dead wood.

Designing animal crossings is not a new art; in the last decade, they have become common across the U.S. But nearly all the existing crossings are underpasses—tunnels and culverts built underneath roads and out of sight.

Florida, for instance, has built a network of concrete underpasses to ferry panthers safely across roadways. Glacier National Park in Montana boasts a tree-lined underpass for mountain goats. There are tortoise tunnels in California. And the town of Amherst, Mass., guides spotted salamanders, in their annual trek from burrows to breeding ground, through special culverts that protect them from getting squashed.

But though these projects have been successful, some animals, such as elk and deer, find underpasses dark and scary and won’t use them with any regularity, ecologists say.

Janel Rosenberg & AssociatesA bridge design extends to the forest on both sides of the highway



Meanwhile, car-critter collisions in the U.S. are on the rise, according to the Federal Highway Administration. Last year, 182 motorists were killed. The Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University puts the annual cost of such collisions at about $8 billion in medical and repair bills.

Seeking a solution, the institute invited designers from around the world to work up plans for a wildlife overpass bridge—common in Europe but rare in the U.S. Entrants were asked to design for a specific site, across Interstate 70 near Vail, Colo.

In truth, Colorado has no money to build a high-concept wildlife bridge. And the Vail location isn’t a priority for animal crossings, according to Russell George, executive director of the state Department of Transportation. Organizers picked the site, rather, for its thorny engineering challenges—rough mountain terrain, heavy snow, six lanes of traffic plus bike lanes. Any design that would work there could be easily modified for other sites, they figured.

Organizers envision wildlife bridges built across prominent highways throughout the nation. Contest manager Rob Ament says the striking structures could become instant icons, symbols of the need for man to share the landscape with animals.

The trouble is, iconic bridges are pricey. One team that made it into the final round has estimated its span would cost $12 million. Another said it hoped to keep construction costs under $10 million. By contrast, a run-of-the-mill underpass might cost anywhere from $100,000 to a few million, depending on size and complexity.

The contest winner, who will earn a $40,000 prize, will be announced in January at a national meeting of transportation officials.

Trisha White, a director of the conservation group Defenders of Wildlife, says those officials must do more than ooh and aah over the entries; she would like them to work on keeping highways out of habitat in the first place.

Wildlife bridges are fine where habitat is irreversibly fragmented, Ms. White says, but “the bigger issue is those future roads….Can we please make better decisions on where to put them?”

Write to Stephanie Simon at stephanie.simon@wsj.com

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Habitat Peril

The Press Enterprise made a strong case for keeping the Riverside County Multi Species Habitat Conservation Plan in tact despite some cities reconsidering their agreement.

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March JPA Settles Lawsuit With Friends Of Hills

A little sunshine from the Press Enterprise:

The March Joint Powers Authority commission voted Wednesday at the agency’s study session meeting to settle a lawsuit filed against it by the Friends of Riverside’s Hills.

The group fought the approval of a specific plan amendment to the Meridian business park that would have allowed future tenants there to add rail cars to the nearby rail track.

The group claimed more environmental studies were necessary to look at the effect more rail traffic might have on nearby neighborhoods.

The settlement would do away with any rail-related approvals in the specific plan. If LNR, the master developer of the business park, wants to seek approval for rail-related used in the future, it will require a separate environmental study, according to the settlement’s terms. LNR will also pay $16,000 to the Friends of Riverside’s Hills for group’s legal costs and fees.

For a little background read Meridian Plan Approved But Not Without Rail Reservations.

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Habitat Vs. Development

Cutting Wildlife Corridor To Sycamore Canyon Park

Cutting Wildlife Corridor To Sycamore Canyon Park

Back in the 1990’s, business leaders, county officials and environmentalists spent months working out future development guidelines for Riverside County and it’s generous open spaces.

One of the results was a map of  ‘cells’ encompassing the entire county. Some of these were designated ‘MSHCP’, Multi Species Habitat Conservation Protection. These were the cells where no development was to occur.

Fast forward a decade and it’s as if all the hours of discussion, examination and good will never happened if we’re to believe the story in the Press Enterprise covering the March Air Reserve Base and the last hope of connecting Sycamore Canyon Wilderness Park to linked MSHCP cells critical for the biological viability of the park and surrounding cells.

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